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Dominican Republic

Dominican Republic

The Dominican Republic is located in the Caribbean region, occupying the eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola, which it shares with Haiti. The country is situated between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, and is bordered by Cuba and Puerto Rico. With a total land area of approximately 48,442 square kilometers, the Dominican Republic is the second largest country in the Caribbean, after Cuba. The population of the country is approximately 10.6 million people, with the majority living in urban areas such as the capital city, Santo Domingo (2,201,941), Santiago (1,200,000), and La Romana (208,437). The official language is Spanish, and the country has a diverse culture that has been shaped by its indigenous, African, and European heritage. The Dominican Republic is well-connected through air transportation, with the major airports being Aeropuerto Internacional Las Américas (SDQ) and Aeropuerto Internacional La Isabela(JBQ), making it easy to travel to the main touristic areas like Punta Cana, Santo Domingo, Samaná, Bayahibe, Juan Dolio, Boca Chica, Sosúa, and Cap Cana.

A Brief overview of Dominican Republic history

The Dominican Republic has a rich and complex history that stretches back thousands of years when it was first inhabited by indigenous Taíno and Arawak peoples, who were later conquered by the Spanish in the 15th century. The colony of Santo Domingo was first established by the Spanish in 1496, being the first permanent European settlement in the Americas. Over the next centuries, the island was ruled by Spain, France, and Haiti, before becoming an independent nation in 1844. During the 20th century, the country went through a series of political upheavals, including the dictatorship of Rafael Trujillo from 1930 to 1961, and the civil war of 1965. After years of political turmoil and economic instability, the Dominican Republic began a process of democratization in the 1990s and has since undergone significant economic growth and development.

Notable figures in the country’s history include Juan Pablo Duarte, who is known as the “Founder of the Nation” and is considered one of the country’s most important historical figures. Other notable figures include Joaquín Balaguer, who served as president of the country for over 20 years, and Rafael Trujillo, the dictator who ruled for over 30 years and is one of the most controversial figures in the country’s history. The country’s history is also marked by events such as the U.S occupation in 1916-1924, which left a significant mark on the country’s development.

Political and economic of Dominican Republic

The Dominican Republic is a democratic republic with a presidential system of government. The President, who is both the head of state and government, is elected by popular vote for a four-year term. The President is assisted by a vice president and the cabinet. The country’s bicameral legislature is made up of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies, who are elected to four-year terms.

Economically, the country has undergone significant growth in recent years, with real GDP growth averaging around 5% per year. The country has a mixed economy with a large services sector, a growing industrial sector, and a small agricultural sector. The Dominican Republic is heavily dependent on tourism, which is one of the main sources of foreign exchange. Additionally, the country is also a leading producer of sugar, coffee, and tobacco. The country’s economy is also helped by the country’s active participation in the Caribbean Basin Initiative, which aims to support economic development in the Caribbean region. However, despite the economic growth, the country is still facing high levels of poverty and inequality, which is a challenge that the country’s government is trying to address.

II. Dominican Republic physical geography and topography

The Dominican Republic is dominated by the Cordillera Central mountain range, which runs through the center of the island and includes Pico Duarte, the country’s highest peak which stands at 3098 meters. The range creates a natural divide between the northern and southern coastal regions. The Dominican Republic has several major rivers, such as Artibonite, which is the longest river in Hispaniola and the Yaque del Norte river. These rivers provide important sources of water and hydroelectric power for the country. The coastline is varied, with long stretches of white sandy beaches in the east, rocky cliffs in the north, and mangrove swamps in the southwest. The Dominican Republic major ecological areas are the subtropical dry forest in the northwest, the mangrove swamps in the southwest, and the rainforest in the Cordillera Central mountain range.

The Dominican Republic climate

The Dominican Republic has a tropical maritime climate, with average temperatures ranging from 25 to 30 degrees Celsius (77-86 degrees Fahrenheit) throughout the year. The Rainfall varies greatly depending on the region, with the northern coastal region being the wettest and the southern coastal region being the driest. The Dominican Republic is occasionally affected by tropical storms and hurricanes, particularly during the Atlantic hurricane season which runs from June to November.

III. The Dominican Republic economic history

The Dominican Republic has an economic history marked by periods of growth and decline. The country experienced rapid economic growth in the post-World War II period, fueled by the growth of the tourist industry and the export of agricultural products. However, this growth was later stifled by political instability, corruption, and a lack of investment in infrastructure. In recent years, the Dominican Republic has seen a resurgence in economic growth, driven by increased foreign investment, tourism, and manufacturing.

Tourism is the Dominican Republic’s main industry and is responsible for a significant portion of the country’s GDP and employment. The country receives over 7 million visitors each year, who come to enjoy the country’s beaches, luxury hotels and golf, culture, and natural beauty. Agriculture is another important industry, with the country being a major exporter of sugarcane, bananas, and coffee. The Dominican Republic also has a growing manufacturing sector, which includes industries such as textiles, footwear, and electronics. Free Trade Zones are a key factor for the industry. The Services sector is also significant and includes mainly finance, healthcare, education and telecommunication.

Despite recent economic growth, the Dominican Republic still faces several economic challenges, such as poverty, unemployment, and inequality. The country has a high poverty rate of around 25% and high levels of income inequality. Additionally, the country has a high unemployment rate and underemployment, which affects mainly youth and women. The Dominican Republic also faces challenges such as weak infrastructure and a lack of access to credit, which limit the growth of small and medium-sized businesses. To help solve this problem, the government has implemented policies and initiatives to address these challenges and boost economic growth and development, including investment in infrastructure, tax incentives for businesses, and programs to promote job creation and education.

The government also is promoting public-private partnerships, encouraging foreign investment and increasing the participation of the private sector in the development of infrastructure projects. Additionally, the government has implemented measures to improve the country’s business climate, such as simplifying regulations and promoting transparency. Furthermore, the government has also implemented measures to boost the development of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), including providing access to credit and training programs to improve their competitiveness.

IV. The Dominican Republic political system

The Dominican Republic country’s government is divided into three branches: the executive branch, which is led by the President; the legislative branch, which is composed of a bicameral National Congress; and the judicial branch, which is made up of the country’s courts. The country has a decentralized government structure, with provinces and the National District. Each province has its government and is led by a governor.

The Dominican Republic has struggled with issues such as corruption, crime and human rights, which have been persistent problems in recent years. Transparency International consistently ranks the Dominican Republic as one of the most corrupt countries in the Americas. Crime and violence are also major concerns, with high rates of murder, drug trafficking and other criminal activities. The Dominican Republic human rights record has been criticized by international organizations and NGOs. This includes issues such as police brutality, discrimination and lack of access to justice

The Dominican Republic has strong relationships with its neighbors in the Caribbean, particularly with countries such as Haiti and Puerto Rico. The country is also a member of international organizations, such as the United Nations, the Organization of American States and the Caribbean Community. The Dominican Republic has free trade agreements with countries like the United States, Canada and several countries in Latin America and Europe.4.

V. The People of Dominican Republic

The population of the Dominican Republic is around 10.7 million people, with a population density of around 220 people per square kilometer. The majority of the population lives in urban areas, particularly in the metropolitan area of Santo Domingo. The population is diverse, with a mix of people of different ethnic backgrounds, including Spanish, African, and Taíno indigenous ancestry.

The main religion of the people in the Dominican Republic is Christianity, with the majority of the population being Roman Catholic. There are also significant minority populations of Protestants, Jehovah’s Witnesses and Seventh-day Adventists. Afro-Caribbean religious traditions, such as Santería and Vodou, are also practiced by some communities.

The country has a rich cultural heritage, with a mix of indigenous, African, and European influences. Music and dance are an important part of the Dominican Republic culture, with popular styles such as merengue and bachata.

Education is compulsory and free for children between the ages of 5 and 18. The country has a relatively high enrollment rate in primary and secondary education, although there are still some disparities in access to education between urban and rural areas and different socio-economic groups.

Healthcare system is based on a mix of public and private providers, with the public system being the most utilized by citizens. Dominican Republic has universal healthcare coverage, but still faces challenges such as limited access to specialized care and a shortage of medical professionals in certain areas. Despite this, the country has seen improvements in several health indicators, such as life expectancy and maternal mortality rate.

VI. Tourism industry

Tourism is one of the most important economic sectors in the Dominican Republic. A big attraction of Dominican Republic is its beautiful beaches of crystal-clear waters, and warm tropical climate, being a major destination for sun and beach tourists from around the world. The country receives over six million tourists annually, making it one of the most popular tourist destinations in the Caribbean. The tourism industry generates over 6% of the country’s GDP and employs around 300,000 people. The main source markets for the country’s tourism are the United States, Canada, and Europe.

The Dominican Republic is home to a wide variety of tourist destinations, from beautiful beaches and crystal-clear waters to historic sites, national parks, and cultural centers. The most popular tourist destinations include:

Punta Cana

Punta Cana is home to luxury all-inclusive resorts, and beautiful white sandy beaches, such as Bávaro Beach and El Cortecito Beach. Located on the easternmost tip of the Dominican Republic, Punta Cana is also known for its clear turquoise waters and excellent snorkeling and diving opportunities. Punta Cana is also popular for golfing, spa treatments, and water sports. The region is also home to several nature reserves, such as the Indigenous Eyes Ecological Park and Reserve, and the Hoyo Azul Cenote, which are great options for visitors who want to experience the natural beauty of the area.

  • Bávaro Beach, home of a line of all-inclusive luxury beachfront hotels, is known for its long stretch of white sandy shores and crystal-clear turquoise waters. It’s considered one of the most beautiful beaches in the Caribbean, it’s a popular spot for water activities such as swimming, snorkeling, and diving, as the waters are warm and calm all year round. There are several beach clubs, bars, and restaurants lining the beach, providing visitors with a variety of options for food and drinks. Bávaro Beach is also a popular spot for windsurfing and kitesurfing, thanks to the steady trade winds. Furthermore, several companies provide excursions to nearby islands, such as the Isla Saona, which is a must-see for visitors to the area, with its stunning beaches and natural landscapes.
  • El Cortecito Beach is a local shopping area along Punta Cana beach with souvenir shops, bars and restaurants. Is lined with palm trees and several bars, live music and restaurants that serve traditional Dominican cuisine, and a variety of beach vendors selling souvenirs, crafts, and other items. El Cortecito Beach is also a great spot for people-watching, as it is a popular destination for both tourists and locals.

Isla Saona

Isla Saona is an island located in the southeast of the Dominican Republic. Known for its unspoiled beauty, it’s considered one of the most beautiful islands in the Caribbean. The trip to Saona Island is usually done by sailing catamaran or by speedboat. It is usual to stop for a bath in the natural pools, such as the Piscina Natural, where visitors can swim and snorkel in the shallows opposite the island. The island is home to several beautiful beaches, including Playa del Este and Playa Frontón, which are known for their crystal-clear waters and fine white sand. The island is surrounded by coral reefs, which are home to a wide variety of marine life, making it a great spot for diving and snorkeling. The island is also home to a wide variety of wildlife, including the West Indian manatee and the American crocodile, which can be spotted in the mangroves and lagoons on the island. The island is a protected natural reserve, and visitors need to be mindful of the environment and follow conservation and sustainability guidelines.

La Romana

La Romana is a city located on the southern coast of the Dominican Republic, 54 minutes driving from Punta Cana, is known for its luxury resort Casa de Campo, a luxurious resort that offers a wide range of amenities and activities. The resort features several world-class golf courses, including the Teeth of the Dog course. The resort also has several spas, tennis courts, and horseback riding facilities, as well as a marina, where visitors can go fishing, sailing or take a boat tour to nearby islands. The resort also has several restaurants, bars, and shops, and it’s the home of Altos de Chavón, a replica of a 16th-century Mediterranean village situated on the top o a hill from of Chavon River.

  • Teeth of the Dog golf course is located in the Casa de Campo resort in La Romana and it is considered one of the best golf courses in the Caribbean. The course was designed by Pete Dye, a renowned golf course architect, and it features 18 holes with breathtaking views of the Caribbean Sea. The course is known for its challenging holes, particularly its coastal holes, which are considered some of the most challenging and picturesque in the Caribbean. The course has hosted several professional tournaments, such as the PGA Latin America Tour, and it has been ranked among the top 100 golf courses in the world by several publications. The course offers a variety of tees to accommodate golfers of all skill levels, and it also has an academy with several golf professionals that offer lessons and clinics.
  • Altos de Chavón is a replica of a 16th-century Mediterranean village that is located inside Casa de Campo resort in La Romana. The village was designed by Italian master planner and architect Roberto Copa and was built in the style of a traditional Mediterranean village with cobblestone streets, outdoor cafes, plazas and a grand stone amphitheater. It serves as a cultural and educational center, with several art galleries and museums that showcase the art and culture of the Dominican Republic and the Caribbean region. The village is also home to the Altos de Chavón School of Design, which is affiliated with the Parsons School of Design in New York City. Visitors can take guided tours of the village, or simply stroll through the streets, take in the views and sample the local cuisine.

Santo Domingo

Santo Domingo is the capital and largest city of the Dominican Republic, renowned for its colonial-era architecture, museums, rich history, culture, and tradition. The city is considered the oldest continuously inhabited European settlement in the Americas and the first capital of the New World. Visitors can explore the historic Zona Colonial, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, which is home to many well-preserved architectural and historical treasures, such as the Alcazar de Colón, the oldest vice-regal residence in the New World, and the Cathedral of Santa Maria la Menor, the first Cathedral built in the Americas.

Santo Domingo also boasts several museums, galleries, and cultural centers, including the Museum of the Royal Houses, the Museum of the Dominican Man, the Museum of Modern Art and the Museum of the Dominican Family. Santo Domingo offers a wide range of restaurants, cafes, bars, and nightlife for visitors to enjoy. The city is also known for its vibrant music scene, with several venues offering live music, salsa, and merengue. If you’re looking to shop, Santo Domingo offers several malls, boutiques, and local markets where you can find a wide range of goods and souvenirs. One of the popular spots in the city is the Malecón, a seaside promenade that offers stunning views of the Caribbean Sea, where visitors can take a stroll along the beach or enjoy a boat tour of the city.


Jarabacoa is a small mountain town located in the central highlands of the Dominican Republic. Known for its cool climate and stunning views of the surrounding mountain ranges. It is a popular spot for enthusiasts of hiking trails, with the Pico Duarte, which is the highest peak in the Caribbean. Visitors can also go rafting and kayaking on the nearby rivers, or take a dip in one of the many natural pools and waterfalls in the area. Jarabacoa is also a great spot for bird watching, as the area is home to a wide variety of bird species, including the Black-crowned Palm-tanager, the White-necked Jacobin, and the Green-tailed warbler. Visitors can also go horseback riding, rock climbing, and paragliding. The town itself is a charming and peaceful place, with a variety of local restaurants and cafes, where visitors can sample traditional Dominican cuisine and enjoy the cooler weather, a perfect destination for those looking for a peaceful retreat, to explore nature and engage in outdoor activities.

Puerto Plata

Puerto Plata is a charming and historic city located on the northern coast of the Dominican Republic, known for its Victorian-style architecture, colonial-era forts, and beautiful beaches. You can explore the city’s historic center, which is home to several well-preserved examples of 19th-century architecture, including the Amber Museum, which displays a wide variety of amber and larimar stones, and the Fort of San Felipe, which was built in the 16th century to protect the city from pirates. Puerto Plata is also known for its beautiful beaches, such as Playa Dorada and Long Beach. The Playa Dorada complex is a large beachfront tourist complex with several hotels, restaurants, and shops. Long beach, on the other hand, is a more secluded spot with crystal-clear water, perfect for swimming and sunbathing. In Puerto Plata, you can also take a cable car ride to the top of Isabel de Torres mountain, which offers spectacular views of the city and the surrounding area. For the adventurous traveler, there are several excursions and activities to choose from, such as mountain biking, zip-lining, and kite surfing at Cabarete beach. We also recommend you take a boat tour of the Amber Coast, where you can see the beautiful landscapes and enjoy the local culture.

  • Cabarete is considered one of the best spots for wind sports in the Caribbean, a beach town located 50 minutes east of Puerto Plata, is known for its lively atmosphere and wind sports fans, with kitesurfing and windsurfing due to its consistent trade winds and warm waters. The town is situated on a long sandy beach that stretches for several kilometers and is bordered by lush vegetation and coconut palms.


Sosúa is a small beach town located in the northwest of the Dominican Republic, 30 minutes east of Puerto Plata. Sosúa beach is particularly popular among visitors looking for its beaches, lively atmosphere and nightlife. Sosúa is also located near several other popular tourist destinations, such as the Playa Dorada complex, a large beachfront tourist complex with several hotels, restaurants, and shops and the El Choco National Park, an ecological reserve that offers hiking and bird-watching opportunities.


Bayahibe is a small town located 28 minutes east of La Romana, known for its beautiful beaches and its vibrant nightlife. The town is situated on a long white-sand beach and is bordered by lush vegetation and coconut palms. The crystal-clear waters of Bayahibe are perfect for swimming and snorkeling. Bayahibe beach is also a departure point for several excursion boats that take visitors to nearby islands, such as Saona Island.

Juan Dolio

Juan Dolio is a beach town located on the southern coast, 50 minutes west of La Romana, known for its beautiful beaches, luxury resorts and proximity to the capital city of Santo Domingo, with crystal-clear waters beach. The town is also located only 35 minutes away from Santo Domingo, the capital city of the country. From here you can take a day trip to the city to explore its historic center, and some well-preserved examples of colonial-era architecture, museums, and cultural attractions such as the Alcazar de Colón, and the Cathedral of Santa Maria la Menor.

Boca Chica

Boca Chica is a beach town located 20 minutes east from Santo Domingo, known for its beautiful beaches and proximity to the capital city of Santo Domingo. Boca Chica beach is also a good spot for diving, several diving centers offer scuba diving and snorkeling expeditions to explore the nearby coral reefs. AT Boca Chica you can tour Boca Chica Bay, which offers beautiful views of the Caribbean Sea and the city skyline.


Samaná is a province situated in a protected bay, located north of Punta Cana in the northeastern part of the Dominican Republic, known for its beautiful beaches, lush rainforests, and cultural heritage. The area is home to several natural attractions, including the Los Haitises National Park, which is known for its limestone landscapes, caves, and over 150 species of birds. At Los Haitises National Park, visitors can explore the park’s hiking trails, boat tours and kayak to get a closer look at the Mangroves, and watch the different bird species. Whale watching is one of the main attractions in the Samana province. Every year between January and March, thousands of humpback whales migrate to the warm waters of Samana Bay to breed and give birth. Visitors can take boat tours to watch these magnificent creatures up close and also get a chance to see dolphins and other marine life.

Another main attraction in Samaná is the El Limon waterfall, located in the El Limon mountain. Visitors can hike to the waterfall and enjoy a refreshing swim in its natural pools. The province also offers several beaches, as Coson Beach known for its clear waters and white sand. Samaná also has a rich cultural heritage. Visiting Samaná Museum you can learn about the history and culture of the region, which tells the story of the Taínos, the indigenous people of the island, or take a tour of the El Catey International Airport, a former sugarcane plantation that was converted into an airport in the 1950s.

Tourism has a significant impact on the economy of the Dominican Republic. To preserve the natural and cultural heritage of the country and ensure the sustainability of the tourism industry, the government of the Dominican Republic has implemented policies and initiatives to promote sustainable tourism. This includes regulations to protect endangered species, natural resources, and important ecosystems and measures to improve the management of waste and sewage in tourist areas. There is also a focus on cultural preservation, such as the promotion of local culture and the conservation of historical sites and landmarks. Furthermore, the government encourages the development of sustainable tourism infrastructure and tourism activities, such as ecotourism and community-based tourism, which are more environmentally and culturally friendly.

VII. Agriculture

The Dominican Republic is primarily an agricultural country, with agriculture accounting for approximately 5% of its GDP. The country has a diverse range of crops, with the most important ones being sugarcane, rice, bananas, and coffee. Dominican Republic has a total of around 4.5 million hectares of land suitable for agriculture, with around 2.7 million hectares currently in use. The most common forms of land use are for crops, livestock, and forestry. The country is the world’s leading exporter of organic bananas, and the second-largest exporter of organic cocoa. Additionally, it is also a major exporter of non-organic products like coffee, sugar, and tobacco. Is a major producer of fruits and vegetables, such as bananas, plantains, papaya and avocado, which are mostly for local consumption

IX. Natural resources

The Dominican Republic has a wide range of natural resources, including mineral, energy, and water resources. The country is rich in minerals, including gold, nickel, bauxite, and copper, as well as other minerals such as silver, zinc and lead. The country also has hydroelectricity potential and resources of wind, solar and geothermal energy.

Dominican Republic cities and population

Order City Population
1. Santo Domingo 2,201,941
2. Santiago de los Caballeros 1,200,000
3. Santo Domingo Oeste 701,269
4. Santo Domingo Este 700,000
5. San Pedro de Macoris 217,899
6. La Romana 208,437
7. Bella Vista 175,683
8. San Cristobal 154,040
9. Puerto Plata 146,000
10. San Francisco de Macoris 124,763
11. Salvaleon de Higueey 123,787
12. Concepcion de La Vega 102,426
13. Punta Cana 100,023
14. Santa Cruz de Barahona 77,160
15. Bonao 73,269
16. San Juan de la Maguana 72,950
17. Bajos de Haina 66,784
18. Bani 66,709
19. Moca 61,834
20. Azua 59,139
21. Villa Francisca 50,185
22. Mao 48,297
23. Boca Chica 46,300
24. Salcedo 45,299
25. Esperanza 42,169
26. Cotui 41,641
27. Villa Altagracia 40,027
28. Hato Mayor del Rey 35,999
29. Nagua 33,862
30. Villa Bisono 33,137
31. Jarabacoa 29,983
32. Constanza 29,481
33. Villa Consuelo 28,621
34. Santa Cruz de El Seibo 23,547
35. Tamboril 23,304
36. Las Matas de Farfan 21,802
37. San Jose de Ocoa 21,148
38. Bayaguana 21,055
39. Rio Grande 20,154
40. Monte Llano 19,029
41. Ciudad Nueva 18,756
42. Neiba 18,670
43. Quisqueya 17,694
44. San Fernando de Monte Cristi 17,001
45. Sabana Grande de Boya 16,834
46. Dajabon 16,398
47. Sabaneta 16,380
48. Monte Plata 15,532
49. San Pedro de Macoris 15,262
50. La Vega 15,000